Browsing by Author "Cîrnu, Carmen Elena"
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- ItemA Critical Infrastructure protection Perspective on Counter-Terrorism în South-Eastern Europe(Publishing House Ministry of Defence Republic of Slovenia, 2020) Georgescu, Alexandru; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen Elena
- PublicationA review of machine learning techniques for the cybersecurity of critical infrastructures(2020) Cîrnu, Carmen Elena; Florian, Vladimir; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Ciupercă, Ella Magdalena; Stanciu, Alexandru; SECURITATE CIBERNETICA SI INFRASTRUCTURI CRITICEAn essential component of the National security consists of the protection of its critical infrastructures (CIs), whether they are physical or virtual, as any disruption of their services could have a serious impact on economic well-being, public health or safety, or any combination of these. Any shutdown or delay may determine financial losses and major risks to people and the environment. All modern CIs are controlled by Industrial Control Systems (ICS) being dependent on their correct and continuous undisturbed functioning. Modern ICSs are inherently much less secure and exposed to the majority of cyber-attacks that are becoming more advanced and sophisticated. Consequently, efficient tools for the protection of hardware and software components of ICSs are required. One such class consists of intrusion prevention and detection systems (IPDS). Contemporary IPDSs use machine learning algorithms to detect threats manifested as anomalous behavior of a particular system. To provide robust detection systems with sufficient layers of protection, these must be combined with other methods and extensively tested with good datasets and using appropriate testbeds. Recent research suggests that conventional intrusion detection approaches are unable to cope with the complexity and ever-changing nature of industrial intrusion attacks. Moreover, deep learning methods are achieving state-of-the-art results across a range of difficult problem domains. The objective of our paper is to identify and discuss machine learning-based intrusion detection and protection methods and their implementation in industrial control intrusion detection systems, able to contribute to ensuring national security.
- ItemBlockchain and critical infrastructures - challenges and opportunities(ICI Publishing House, 2019-06-30) Georgescu, Alexandru; Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaCritical infrastructures are vital sociotechnical systems whose destruction or disruption would have a significant impact on the functioning of society on multiple levels. Blockchain or distributed ledger technology is a fast-growing technique for disintermediating transactions and exchanges of information in the absence of trust. It is likely that blockchain will eventually be used not only in novelty applications, but also in systemically important critical infrastructures. This article suggests that the obvious advantages that will compel the adoption of blockchain are also accompanied by significant disadvantages and sketches some of the resulting issues. A particular case study is done for SCADA systems.
- ItemCritical Space Infrastructures – a comparison to terrestrial CI(IOS Press, 2019) Georgescu, Alexandru; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen Elena
- ItemCritical Space Infrastructures – a comparison to terrestrial CI(IOS Press, 2020) Georgescu, Alexandru; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaSpace systems have become key enablers for a wide variety of applications on Earth through evolving capabilities in navigation, positioning, timing, data gathering and communications. These capabilities have become, in certain instances, critical to the functioning of critical infrastructure systems. These are interconnected sociotechnical systems which provide critical goods and services and whose destruction or disruption would cause significant loss of human life, material damage and other effects. The paper argues that space systems can provide a new category of critical infrastructures and highlights the differences between terrestrial and spaceborne systems from the perspective of the critical infrastructure protection framework.
- ItemCross-border eServices for public administration driven by Once-Only Principle(ICI, 2020-12-20) Cîrnu, Carmen Elena; Rotună, Carmen IonelaNowadays implementing cross-border electronic public services is a top priority for public administrations across EU for accelerating economic development. Currently, there are still technical, administrative and legal barriers at European level that prevent businesses and citizens from accessing electronic services in and from other countries. The use of digital technologies is currently an integrated part of modernisation and innovation strategies in member states. The Once-Only Principle (OOP) is one of the key principles for developing electronic services while promoting cross-border cooperation between authorities. The Once-Only Principle Project (TOOP) supports EU efforts on granting every European a similar level of digital experiences and rights by developing a federated OOP architecture and real-life pilots.
- ItemCyber as a Transformative Element in the Critical Infrastructure Protection Framework(ICI, 2020-06-30) Georgescu, Alexandru; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaCritical Infrastructure Protection represents a comprehensive conceptual framework for the management of risks, vulnerabilities and threats arising from interconnected socio-technical systems termed infrastructures. Their criticality stems from the impact which disruption or destruction would have on a society or a region, whether through human and material losses, or of prestige and trust. Cyber has become an important factor in CIP, a crosscutting issue whose ascent has resulted in significant changes. This article argues that the penetration of cyber into almost every facet of human activity has resulted in fundamental structural changes, describes those changes in a systematized manner and theorizes what may happen to security governance under the new status quo.
- ItemCyber diplomacy, strategic instrument in foreign affairs policy(ICI Publishing House, 2019-06-30) Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaCyber diplomacy is an emerging tool for states and other stakeholders to manage collective security risks and promote good governance in a world whose interdependencies lead to the propagation of risks, threats and vulnerabilities at a rapid pace and without regard for traditional boundaries and jurisdictions. This article presents the various facets of the emerging cyber diplomacy literature and details initiatives in this area. Overall, there is an understanding of its role in creating a more stable cyber environment, but there are significant hurdles to overcome, especially as they relate to trust and coordination.
- ItemIndustry 6.0 – new dimensions for industrial cooperation on the Belt and Road(2019) Georgescu, Alexandru; Cîrnu, Carmen Elena
- ItemIntroducerea notiunilor elementare de Securitate cibernetica in unitatile de invatamant(Club România Publishing House, 2020) Cîrnu, Carmen Elena; Dinu, Andreea
- ItemSocial variables of cyber security educational programmes(2019) Ciupercă, Ella Magdalena; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaAs the need for cyber security is growing exponentially along with the development of new technologies, people's resistance to change determine a gap between people's real digital competences and the ideal profile that would allow their optimal functioning in the emerging society. In this article we study how people' perception of technology can be influenced in an era where the use of Internet of Things, social networks, big data is important but the protection of personal data is a must. While Romania introduced coding and IT&C knowledge in gymnasium curricula, the majority of population do not have the chance to attend such courses. The few existent courses in this direction are not enough customized for different social category. Therefore, any attempt to influence the way in which culture is formed must take into account the matching between all the knowledge, opinions, values, norms, signs and symbols that are conveyed in a society with the development stage of that society and with the system of values that its members have internalized. Therefore, comparing traditional teaching and e-learning we will propose a specific blended cyber security educational model for building a proper cyber security culture among Romanian population having in mind the complexity of the factors that influence the results of an effective cyber security strategy. Using such a model it will be possible to transmit basic knowledge to the average citizen and to determine him to adopt a behavior that will allow him the optimal functioning in present days’ society.
- ItemThe Proliferation of Cyber Weapons -Theory and Mitigation(ICI Publishing House, 2019-12-20) Georgescu, Alexandru; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen ElenaCyberspace has been designated by NATO as a new operational domain, but many countries, such as the US, preceded it. Cyber weaponry differs from kinetic weaponry and generate effects through non-kinetic means. Similar to the divide between nuclear weapons and conventional weapons, the availability and potential use of cyber weapons creates new dynamics, constraints and considerations in relations between states. Their usefulness in covert and overt warfare must be balanced with the insecurity they generate in the absence of rules and norms governing their use, which ultimately leads to collective insecurity. The article highlights key considerations on cyber weaponry and discusses the feasibility of non-proliferation efforts.
- ItemThe use of Rasberry Pi devices in the modern technical education system(Editura Universitara, 2020) Ciupercă, Ella Magdalena; Vevera, Adrian Victor; Cîrnu, Carmen Elena; Apostol, MihaiIn a time when technology is advancing with extreme rapidity, perhaps the greatest challenge to be answered by new generations is the development of the skills that allow them to function in a digitized society. This challenge is addressed on the one hand to the average man, for whom mastering the operation in the IT&C field is a functional necessity, as well as to those passionate about programming and electronics. If it is necessary for the first ones to identify the simplest and friendliest ways by which the new technologies can be implemented, the formation of the second category implies the inclusion in the educational process of the newest technologies and the familiarization with them up to the level at which it can unlock creativity and development. In this paper, we aim to address the issue of Single-Board-Computer (SBC) devices in terms of understanding the educational potential that these devices have, but also how they can be leveraged in learning. In fact, these devices have been developed specifically for educational purposes or to be used as embedded systems. They represent small computers having all components embedded on a single silicon board and having CPU, GPU, memory, input / output and other features required for a functional computer. For this purpose, we will analyze comparatively the content of the curriculum of the most important technical universities in Romania and abroad to identify the extent to which such devices are taken over by the universities, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of their use. Depending on the results obtained, we will develop a set of measures aimed at optimizing the educational potential of SBC devices, especially Raspberry Pi devices which are the most widespread SBC.